The Ancient Postal Routes: A Journey Through Time and Distance

Long before the advent of modern communication technology, a sophisticated network of postal routes crisscrossed empires and connected far-flung corners of the world. These were not mere pathways but lifelines that facilitated the movement of vital information, trade, and cultural exchange. Here’s a look at some of the most fascinating ancient postal routes in history.

The Royal Road of the Persian Empire

The Achaemenid Empire in Persia had one of the earliest and most well-documented postal systems. The “Royal Road” was the backbone of this operation, stretching over 1,600 miles from Sardis in modern-day Turkey to Susa in Iran. Couriers would travel on horseback across well-maintained roads, stopping at post stations situated at regular intervals for rest and a fresh horse. King Darius the Great is often credited with streamlining this system.

The Roman Cursus Publicus

As the Roman Empire expanded, so did the need for a robust postal system. Enter the Cursus Publicus, a state-run courier and transportation service established by Emperor Augustus in the 1st century BCE. Using a relay system similar to the Persians, couriers covered roughly 50 to 60 miles a day, delivering messages and even transporting government officials.

China’s Silk Road Mail

China’s postal history is closely tied to its famous trade routes, particularly the Silk Road. As early as the Han Dynasty, China had an established courier system known as the “jiaolian,” where relay stations and watchtowers were set up along trade routes. Not only did these routes facilitate the movement of silk and other goods, but they also served as conduits for official correspondence and cultural exchange between China and the West.

India’s Foot Runners

In ancient India, foot runners were a common means of communication. These dedicated men would carry messages across difficult terrains, even running barefoot for hundreds of miles. The Mauryan Empire, in particular, made extensive use of foot runners, who were often trained to memorize messages to avoid interception.

Japan’s Ekiben Taro

Japan’s Edo period saw the development of the hikyaku (飛脚, literally “flying legs”) system, where relay stations were established along highways connecting Edo (now Tokyo) with other parts of Japan. Ekiben Taro is a legendary figure who supposedly could run 300 miles in just a day and a half. While his story is likely an exaggeration, it highlights the incredible efficiency of Japan’s early postal network.

The Incan Chasquis

In South America, the Incas employed a relay system of runners known as Chasquis. These agile couriers would traverse the Andean mountain trails, covering up to 240 km in a single day. Intricately knotted cords called quipus were often used to encode messages.


The ancient postal routes are a testament to humanity’s innate need to communicate and connect. Whether by horse, foot, or even by sea, these ancient systems employed remarkable feats of logistics, engineering, and human endurance. They remind us that even in an age of instant communication, the fundamental desire to reach out across distances remains unchanged.

From the Royal Road to Japan’s hikyaku, these postal routes not only moved letters but also carried the aspirations, discoveries, and shared wisdom of civilizations. They were, in every sense, the information superhighways of their time.

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